People settled in that place availability of basic requirements (food good fertile soil and water i.e., rivers).
- A good strong ruler who establishes empire either by dominating landlords or by capturing lands from previous kings of princelystates. then expanding it; wars, army, wealth, granaries, etc.
- As king exists, the following develops:
So downfall of an empire results in lost of patronage of listed things like religion, art, etc. this results in movement of artisans, craftsmen, etc without which a settlement don’t exist
Vijayanagara Empire map
- Capital vijayanagaram
This peninsular area has a very fertile soil on the banks of the rivers like krishna, cauvery, etc.
Before the early 14th century rise of the vijayanagara empire, the hindu kingdoms of the deccan, the seuna yadavas of devagiri, the kakatiya dynasty of warangal, the pandya kingdom of madurai, and the tiny kingdom of kampili had been repeatedly invaded by muslims from the north, and by 1336 they had all been defeated by alla-ud-din khilji and muhammad bin tughluq, the sultans of delhi. the hoysala empire was the sole remaining hindu kingdom in the path of the muslim invasion. after the death of hoysala veera ballala iii during a battle against the sultan of madurai in 1343, the hoysala empire merged with the growing vijayanagara empire.
DIFFERENT RULERS OF VIJAYANAGARAM EMPIRE
Harihara Raya I
Bukka Raya I
Harihara Raya II
Bukka Raya II
Deva Raya I
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya
Deva Raya II
Virupaksha Raya II
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya
Narasimha Raya II
Tuluva Narasa Nayaka
Krishna Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya
Aliya Rama Raya
Tirumala Deva Raya
NATURAL LANDSCAPE AND NATURAL MATERIAL
This area has a rocky terrain with granite stone available in plenty
The construction material available and used mostly is granite
VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE HAMPI
The main entrance with a 50 meter gopuram faces east into a ceremonial and colonnaded street, that exends for about 1 km to a monolithic statue of nandi.
VITTALA TEMPLE HAMPI
In the front of the temple is the famous stone chariot or ratha. This is itself a miniature temple, carved out of a single rock, to resemble the temple chariots or rathas in which temple idols are traditionally taken out in procession.
One of the notable features of the vittala temple is the musical pillars. Each of the pillars that support the roof of the main temple is supported by a pillar representing a musical instrument, and is constructed as 7 minor pillars arranged around a main pillar. These 7 pillars, when struck, emanate the 7 notes from the representative instrument, varying in sound quality based on whether it represents a wind, string or percussion instrument.
The temple is the venue of the annual purandaradasa festival
VITTALA TEMPLE HAMPI
Massive rock cut idol of narasimha, the fierce aspect of vishnu, 6.7 m high. originally the idol bore a smaller image of lakshmi on one knee; this had fallen off, probably due to vandalism. the lakshmi statue is now in the museum at kamalapuram.
The donation of this work is ascribed to either krishnadeva raya, or to a wealthy merchant during his reign
The empire’s economy was largely dependent on agriculture.
The empire’s capital city was a thriving business centre that included a burgeoning market in large quantities of precious gems and gold.
When merchant ships docked, the merchandise was taken into official custody and taxes levied on all items sold.
Also called the stepped bath, or the queen’s bath, this is a stepped well designed for bathing. such sunken wells were created to provide relief from daytime heat. it would have been covered when the city was occupied
A set of large stables, to house the ceremonial elephants of the royal household. the area in front of them was a parade ground for the elephants, and for troops. this is another structure that shows islamic influence in its domes and arched gateways. the guards’ barracks are located right next to the elephant stables
ART AND LITERATURE
Art and literature were developed in this empire and was in its peak during the reign of krishna deva raya
ART PIECE(SCULPTURE) IN HEZARA RAMA TEMPLE